Petrified Forest proposes entrance fee increases December 21, 2017 The Petrified Forest National Park is seeking public comment regarding entrance fee increases into the park for 2018. The park is seeking to increase the motorcycle entrance fee from $10 to $15 and the annualSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad
By Diana Hutchison Copperstate Farms LLC, local medical marijuana grower, has been open in Snowflake for less than 18 months but has already met some major goals and become a significant asset to the community.Subscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad Copperstate Farms reports major accomplishments since opening February 13, 2018
Pedal the Petrified is another big success By Toni Gibbons Two hundred twenty-five bicyclists participated in Northland Pioneer College (NPC) Friends and Family Pedal the Petrified (PTP) at the Petrified Forest National Park on Sept. 15, helping to raise more thanSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad September 25, 2018
April 10, 2019 By Linda Kor Holbrook Police Chief Nathan Christensen has settled into the job after eight months on the job and has lined out some priorities for the year for his department. “Right nowSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad Photo by Linda KorHolbrook Police Chief (pictured) has outlined some goals for his department with a focus on customer service and accountability. Chief Christensen outlines his police department’s goals
By PTI |New Delhi | Updated: July 15, 2019 12:09:55 pm “The court of sessions will frame additional charges under Section 120-B (conspiracy) and the other provisions of the Penal Code mentioned in the joint charge sheet filed by the CBI against Champat Rai Bansal, Satish Pradhan, Dharam Das, Mahant Nritya Gopal Das, Mahamadleshwar Jagdish Muni, Ram Bilas Vadanti, Vaikunth Lal Sharma and Satish Chandra Nagar,” the apex court had said.It had also said that if trial was adjourned, then it should be fixed on the the next day or a closely proximate date and the reasons for it shall be recorded in writing.CBI shall ensure that on every date fixed for recording of evidence, some prosecution witnesses must remain present, so that for want of witnesses the matter is not adjourned, it had said.The court had termed the Allahabad High Court’s February 12, 2001 verdict dropping conspiracy charge against Advani and others as “erroneous”.Out of the eight VIP accused, Giriraj Kishore and Vishwa Hindu Parishad leader Ashok Singhal have died during trial and the proceedings against them have been abated. The special judge, in a letter written in May, has informed the top court that he is due to superannuate on September 30, 2019.The matter came up for hearing on Monday before a bench headed by Justice R F Nariman, which asked the Uttar Pradesh government to apprise it by July 19 about a mechanism by which the tenure of the special judge could be extended till he delivers the verdict in the high profile case.On April 19, 2017, the top court had ordered day-to-day trial to be concluded in two years in the politically sensitive 1992 Babri Masjid demolition case. Advertising Ayodhya hearing: SC grants time to mediators till August 15 Ayodhya land dispute: A litigant moves Supreme Court for early hearing The court had come down heavily on the CBI for the delay of 25 years in the trialA special judge holding trial in Babri Masjid demolition case, involving BJP veterans L K Advani, M M Joshi and others, Monday moved the Supreme Court seeking six more months to conclude the trial in the case. Karnataka: SC to rule today, says Speaker’s powers need relook Advertising While dubbing the demolition of the medieval era monument as a “crime” which shook the “secular fabric of the Constitution”, it had allowed the CBI’s plea on restoration of criminal conspiracy charge against the VVIP accused.However, the top court had said Kalyan Singh, who is currently the Governor of Rajasthan and during whose tenure as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh the disputed structure was razed, is entitled to immunity under Constitution as long as he remained in gubernatorial position.The court had come down heavily on the CBI for the delay of 25 years in the trial and said, “The accused persons have not been brought to book largely because of the conduct of the CBI in not pursuing the prosecution of the aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint trial, and because of technical defects which were easily curable, but which were not cured by the State Government.”Issuing a slew of directions, it had said that “the proceedings (against Advani and five others) in the court of the Special Judicial Magistrate at Rae Bareilly will stand transferred to the Court of Additional Sessions Judge (Ayodhya Matters) at Lucknow.”Besides the three leaders, the accused, against whom the conspiracy charge was invoked, were Vinay Katiar, Sadhvi Ritambara, Vishnu Hari Dalmia, who were being tried at Rae Bareilly. Uddhav Thackeray to visit Ayodhya with Shiv Sena MPs before Parliament session In undecided Congress, first open call for Priyanka: She should be party chief Best Of Express NRC deadline approaching, families stranded in Assam floods stay home Related News 9 Comment(s)
The Whys and Wherefores of the FTC Probe Richard Adhikari has been an ECT News Network reporter since 2008. His areas of focus include cybersecurity, mobile technologies, CRM, databases, software development, mainframe and mid-range computing, and application development. He has written and edited for numerous publications, including Information Week and Computerworld. He is the author of two books on client/server technology. Email Richard. Crime and No Punishment “Our customers’ privacy is important to us, and the FTC plays a critical role in privacy regulation,” an AT&T spokesperson said in responses provided to TechNewsWorld by Margaret Boles, assistant vice president of public affairs and federal media relations at AT&T.”We continue to support comprehensive federal legislation to protect consumers’ data throughout the Internet ecosystem, and the FTC is the logical agency to enforce that legislation,” the AT&T spokesperson said. “If the FTC has any questions for us, we will respond appropriately.”AT&T in 2014 paid US$80 million to the FTC for consumer refunds to settle charges of mobile phone cramming — that is, billing for unauthorized third-party charges — as part of a $105 million settlement with federal and state law enforcement officials.In February 2018, AT&T lost its years-long battle against an FTC lawsuit alleging it throttled wireless broadband speeds by up to 90 percent after promising customers unlimited data access.The court decision affirmed the commission’s authority to regulate broadband providers. The FTC has ordered the companies to detail how they collect, retain, use, and disclose their use of data from consumers and their devices.The companies must prepare a special report containing specified information and documents, and file it within 45 days of being served with the order.The information sought includes the following:Categories of personal information collected about consumers or their devices, including why the information is collected or used, how it is collected or shared with third parties, internal policies for access to this data, and how long the information is retained;Whether the information is aggregated, anonymized or de-identified;Copies of the companies’ notices and disclosures to consumers about their data collection practices;Whether the companies offer consumers choices about the collection, retention, use and disclosure of personal information, and whether the companies have denied or degraded service to consumers who declined to opt in to data collection; andTheir procedures and processes for letting consumers access, correct or delete their personal information.The special report must restate each item of the order with which the corresponding answer is identified, and must be subscribed and sworn to by a company official who has prepared or supervised the preparation of the report from books, records, correspondence, and other data and material in the company’s possession.If answers are incomplete, companies must provide whatever information is available, and explain in what respects the answers are incomplete, and why.The special report and all accompanying documentary responses must be Bates-stamped. “More and more, Internet service providers are becoming vertically integrated companies that provide access, create content, and monetize ads served,” FTC spokesperson Juliana Henderson told TechNewsWorld.”At a time when jurisdiction of broadband Internet access service has been restored to the FTC, the commission regarded it to be appropriate to examine the industry to evaluate companies’ privacy practices,” she said. “In particular, through the orders, the commission is asking questions to learn more about how ISPs collect, use, combine, and disclose consumers’ personal information.”Following an investigation, the FTC may initiate an enforcement action if it has reason to believe the law has been violated.”We will determine next steps after staff and the commission have had time to review the requested information,” Henderson said.”When the Federal Communications Commission killed Net neutrality, [FCC Chairman] Ajit Pai basically noted that anticompetitive issues would be best adjudicated at the FTC,” noted Michael Jude, program manager at Stratecast/Frost & Sullivan.”Privacy kind of fits under that rubric,” he told TechNewsWorld. The United States Federal Trade Commission on Tuesday announced an investigation into the privacy policies, procedures and practices of seven Internet broadband providers and related entities:AT&T Inc.AT&T Mobility LLCComcast Cable Communications doing business as XfinityGoogle Fiber Inc.T-Mobile US Inc.Verizon Communications Inc. Cello Partnership dba Verizon Wireless Sen. Ron Wyden, D-Ore., last fall proposed the Consumer Data Protection Act of 2018 to give the FTC the authority and resources to address and prevent threats to consumers’ privacy. Among the reasons offered in support of the legislation:The FTC cannot fine first-time corporate offenders, and fines for subsequent violations of the law are “tiny and not a credible deterrent”;The commission does not have the power to punish companies unless they lie to consumers about how much they protect consumers’ privacy, or their behavior costs consumers money;It does not have the power to set minimum cybersecurity standards for products that process consumer data — nor does any federal regulator; andIt does not have enough staff, especially skilled technology experts. Currently it has about 50 people policing the entire technology sector, as well as credit agencies.Wyden’s bill would empower the FTC to take the following actions:Establish minimum privacy and cybersecurity standards;Issue fines of up to 4 percent of annual revenue on the first offense, and 10- 20-year criminal penalties for senior executives;Create a national Do Not Track system to let consumers stop third-party companies from tracking them on the Web. The system would let consumers pay a fee to use companies’ products and services rather than allow their personal information to be monetized;Give consumers a way to review the personal information a company held about them; challenge inaccuracies in that data; and learn the identities of any other entities that may have accessed it;Hire 175 more staff to police the largely unregulated market for private data; andRequire companies to assess the algorithms that process consumer data to examine their impact on accuracy, fairness, bias, discrimination, privacy and security.”I tend to distrust regulatory structures that build in such extreme penalties, especially when privacy is such an elusive concept generally, and on the Internet specifically,” Frost’s Jude said.”We have run studies of consumer perceptions of the Internet and have asked how concerned with privacy people are,” he noted. “It’s almost a perfect Bell curve centered on ‘not much concerned.'”Further, Wyden’s bill “is clearly modeled on the GDPR, and the GDPR is untested in the market yet,” Jude pointed out, “so we really don’t know the impact it will ultimately have on things like innovation.” AT&T Plays Ball
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Oct 31 2018Asymmetry between the two sides of the face increases steadily with aging – a finding with important implications for facial rejuvenation and reconstructive procedures, reports a study in the November issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).Three-dimensional digital imaging techniques show a subtle but significant aging-related increase in facial asymmetry, especially in the lower two-thirds of the face, according to the new research by ASPS Member Surgeon Helena O.B. Taylor, MD, PhD, of Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, Mass., and colleagues. “The observed correlation between increasing facial asymmetry and age can be useful as a guide in plastic surgery to produce age-matched features,” the researchers write.Steady Increase in Facial Asymmetry with AgingUsing a technique called 3D photogrammetry, Dr. Taylor and colleagues performed detailed scans of the facial surface in 191 volunteers, who ranged in age from four months to 88 years. The researchers then calculated the “root mean square deviation” (RMSD) to quantify the degree of asymmetry between the two sides of each face.This digital imaging approach enabled the investigators to distinguish very subtle levels of asymmetry – within a fraction of a millimeter. Facial asymmetry was analyzed in terms of age, and between the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face. Across age groups, RMSD calculations of facial symmetry clustered between 0.4 and 1.3 mm.”We found a highly significant positive correlation between increasing age and facial asymmetry,” the researchers write. The measurements showed a small but predictable increase in RMSD: by 0.06 mm for each decade of life. Facial asymmetry did not vary significantly based on race or sex.Related StoriesBordeaux University Hospital uses 3D printing to improve kidney tumor removal surgeryTransobturator sling surgery shows promise for stress urinary incontinenceNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerAsymmetry increased with aging across all thirds of the face, but the changes were greatest in the lower two-thirds – from the eyebrows to nose and from the nose to chin – compared to the upper third. “This finding suggests that the middle and lower features contribute more to overall asymmetry over time,” Dr. Taylor and coauthors write.While some degree of asymmetry is “attractive and inherent” in the human face, achieving facial symmetry is a fundamental goal of plastic surgery. In terms of precision and accuracy, 3D photogrammetry is a major advance over previous studies of facial asymmetry using direct measurements (anthropometry).The results confirm the presence of small but measurable and noticeable increases in facial asymmetry with aging. While the underlying mechanism of these age-related changes remains open to debate, the findings support “a site-specific approach to facial rejuvenation,” according to the authors.For example, using implants or soft tissue volumizers to replace the deep support structures could improve facial asymmetry and restore youthful proportions, especially from the eyebrows down to the chin. Dr. Taylor and colleagues conclude: “Ultimately, we hope to contribute to a better understanding of how asymmetry evolves with time and use this data to improve outcomes in both reconstructive and aesthetic surgery.”Source: http://home.lww.com/news.entry.html/2018/10/30/facial_asymmetryinc-O4FA.html
Source:https://www.cedars-sinai.org/newsroom/key-takeaways-from-three-landmark-heart-studies/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 13 2018Today, at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, the research group led by Sumeet Chugh, MD, professor of Medicine and associate director of the Smidt Heart Institute, presented three critical research studies aimed at better understanding sudden cardiac arrest.”These research studies provide clues into some of the toughest questions in cardiac care,” said Chugh, the Pauline and Harold Price Chair in Cardiac Electrophysiology Research. “These findings help us move closer to understanding who is at highest risk of sudden cardiac arrest.”The three studies presented today all establish connections between sudden cardiac arrest and specific health conditions:An Association Between Multiple Sclerosis and Sudden Cardiac Death–Investigators found patients with multiple sclerosis have a five-fold higher incidence of sudden cardiac arrest over the general U.S. population. This observational study evaluated clinical characteristics of individuals who suffered cardiac arrest in the community. While the reasons for this finding need to be investigated, the brain has established links with heart function and could be influencing electrical function of the heart.Enhancement of Sudden Death Risk Prediction in Patients With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy–Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) also have a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest, but until now, researchers have been unable to identify which patients are at highest risk. Using a novel electrocardiography risk score, Chugh and his research team can better identify patients with intermediate or high-risk LVH. They plan to test their findings in a larger group of patients.Related StoriesTeam approach to care increases likelihood of surviving refractory cardiogenic shockSmoking triples the risk of death from cardiovascular diseaseWeightlifting is better for the heart than cardioDoes Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Explain the Increased Sudden Death Risk in Obesity? –Obesity is a known risk factor of sudden cardiac arrest, as is LVH. This research study aimed to find if a correlation exists between obesity and LVH, or if they are independent of one another. Chugh’s research suggests that both are independent predictors of sudden cardiac arrest and each have their own deadly properties. Next steps are to understand if being both obese and having LVH doubles the risk of sudden cardiac arrest.All of the above data comes from the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study, a comprehensive, 16-hospital, multiyear assessment of cardiac deaths in the 1 million population of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Led by Chugh, the project–now ongoing for more than 15 years–provides researchers with unique, community-based information to help determine the causes of sudden cardiac arrest.Although “sudden cardiac arrest” and “heart attack” often are used interchangeably, the terms are not synonymous. Unlike heart attacks (myocardial infarctions), which are typically caused by clogged coronary arteries reducing blood flow to the heart muscle, sudden cardiac arrest is the result of defective electrical activity of the heart. Patients may have little or no warning, and the disorder usually causes instantaneous death. Sudden cardiac arrest accounts for approximately 300,000 deaths each year in the U.S.
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 11 2019As the partial government shutdown drags on, about 800,000 federal employees who work for the shuttered agencies — and their families — are facing the reality of life without a paycheck.And those workers need to consider a host of other related issues as they attempt to make ends meet.For starters, what will happen to their health insurance? For the most part, federal employees needn’t worry about that, according to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) in an FAQ blog post.Both the online FAQ and the health insurance industry’s trade association confirm that coverage through the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) program will continue even if some federal agencies affected by the shutdown aren’t issuing those paychecks or paying premiums.”The shutdown should not impact their coverage,” said Kristine Grow, spokeswoman for America’s Health Insurance plans, the trade group that represents insurers, including those that offer coverage through the federal program. “It’s business as usual.”Once the shutdown ends and those payments resume, workers should expect that their usual share of premiums plus some of the accumulated amount that wasn’t deducted during the missed pay periods will be taken out.”Procedures may vary somewhat by payroll office, but the maximum additional deduction allowed under regulations is one pay period’s worth of premiums (in addition to the current pay period’s premium),” said an OPM spokeswoman.What about government contract workers? Less clear is what happens to workers under contract with the affected federal agencies — including some people working as analysts, administration assistants and janitorial staff — who are mostly excluded from the FEHB program.Many companies that contract with the federal government offer workers insurance. The federal Office of Personnel Management recommends these contracted employees consult the human resources office at their company for answers regarding the shutdown.”In 95 percent of cases, even if it’s not required by law, I would think most everyone would continue that coverage,” said Rachel Greszler, a senior policy analyst and research fellow at the Heritage Foundation who studies economics, budget and labor issues.For contract workers who buy their own coverage and are struggling to pay bills without their paychecks, it’s a different story. One strategy may be to ask their insurers for a grace period in paying their premiums, similar to how the government has suggested workers seek accommodation from mortgage lenders and other creditors. But there is no requirement that insurers grant such a request.”We are concerned about the disruption that this shutdown has caused our members and their families,” noted a corporate statement from CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield. “We are currently exploring how to best address this issue should the shut-down continue.”What else could be affected? Related StoriesEmploying new federal rule on health insurance plans could save moneyAXT enhances cellular research product portfolio with solutions from StemBioSysTrump administration cracks down on fetal tissue researchDepending on how long the shutdown lasts, dental, vision and life insurance programs may start sending bills directly to workers.Federal workers pay the premiums for these benefits themselves, according to Dan Blair, who served as both acting director and deputy director of the OPM during the early 2000s. He is now a senior counselor and fellow the Bipartisan Policy Center.Because workers’ checks are not being processed, the amounts usually sent to these carriers each pay period also aren’t being paid. If the shutdown lasts longer than two or three pay periods, workers will get premium bills directly from these firms and should pay them “on a timely basis to ensure continuation of coverage,” the OPM says in its FAQ. Blair agrees.There also may be a delay in processing claims for flexible spending accounts. These are special accounts in which workers use pretax money deducted from their paychecks to cover certain eligible medical expenses, such as eyeglasses, braces, copayments for doctor visits or medications, including some over-the-counter products. With no paychecks going out, these deductions are not being made and transferred into FSAs. Once paychecks start up again, the amount deducted will be adjusted so the worker will get the annual total they had requested.During the shutdown, though, reimbursement claims to these accounts also won’t be processed, the OPM says. Blair suggests holding off on big-ticket purchases during the shutdown, if possible, and always keeping paperwork on the purchases.Another consideration: Those who changed plans before the furlough may find their paperwork wasn’t processed in time.In those cases, the OPM says to stick with the old health plan until the shutdown ends and the new plan is processed. The new plan will pick up any claims incurred.How will workers know if their change was processed? The OPM’s FAQ says workers who receive an ID card in the mail are enrolled.”The new policy will be what applies and pays benefits, but there could be some administrative burdens and hassles on the part of workers if the shutdown continues much longer, if the initial bills are not going to the right insurance company,” Greszler said.Overall, Blair says workers should continue to monitor news media sites, particularly those that focus on federal workers and issues, looking for any updates.”We’re getting into uncharted territory and there are always things that pop up that no one has planned for,” said Blair, who did not face any shutdowns during his tenure at OPM. This article was reprinted from khn.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.
By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.May 21 2019Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)A man who developed scoliosis as a teenager has developed ways to cope with chronic pain without using pain medication. Stirling Witt from Kansas City says that rather than taking the medication, he stretches, exercises, follows a healthy diet and focuses on staying positive.Untitled Title | ShutterstockWitt found that in his teenage years and 20s, the chronic pain that he was in led to negative thoughts and depression, which only further exacerbated the pain.Witt describes the pain he was in as a “low-grade kind of menacing pain that ran through my spine and mostly my lower back and my upper right shoulder blade and then even into my neck a little bit.”Although the pain was difficult to live with, Witt found the sense of helplessness it led to was even more difficult to cope with. Struggling with back pain led him to feel depressed and like a social outcast. In the case of the stove example, this would mean a person never touched the hot stove again.‘Pain processing’ regions of the brainAnother reason that higher order animals have brains that link pain and emotion may be empathy, suggests Crook. When a person experiences pain, they develop empathy for other members of their social circle or family who experience pain and then try to offer help.Beth Darnell, a psychologist at Stanford University, says that although this emotional response to pain and empathy for others is beneficial, pain can also be destructive.Mental health disorders, for example, amplify pain: “They engage regions of the brain that associate with pain processing. And they can also facilitate rumination and fearful focus on the pain.”When the pain persists, it can eventually cause changes in the brain and pain signaling that no longer provides any benefit. Instead, the signaling can lead to depression, anxiety and stress… like Witt experienced.Darnall says it can be possible to break this cycle. Patients can learn to gain control over the pain signaling, by slowing their breathing and relaxing their muscles, for example. A state of relaxation can serve as an antidote to the pain responses that the experience of pain triggers.‘There’s hope’In some cases, such techniques can serve as an alternative to taking pain medication and for patients who do rely on these drugs, psychological therapy can help the medications work more effectively.However, patients are not generally offered psychological therapy, says Darnell, who believes that too much emphasis has been placed on treating pain as a biomedical problem that requires pharmaceutical intervention.Witt, now 40 years of age and making a living from art and music, says he no longer paints or writes songs about pain, nor does he take pain medication. He stretches and exercises instead and also follows a healthy diet and tries to stay optimistic. I’m actually not convinced that I have to live with this for the rest of my life. I very well may. But at the same time, I live in that state of mind all the time that there’s hope.” Having that emotional component linked to the sensory experience really is a great enhancer of memory. And so humans, for example, can remember a single painful experience sometimes for their entire lives.” At first, Witt decided to channel his emotions into music and paintings that would portray the pain, as a way to express and liberate himself. He found that absorbing himself in songwriting and painting enabled him to tune out the pain.”When I’m making art and music, I feel less pain. While I’m doing those things, I’m so distracted from my pain that it’s almost like I don’t have it.”Scientists say Witt’s experience is a typical example of how sensations of pain can turn into something much more complex.What connects pain and emotion?Karen Davis from Krembil Brain Institute in Toronto says that essentially pain is just something that makes you say “ouch” and that everything else a person experiences is the outcome of the pain and how it affects emotions, feelings, and behavior.The initial “ouch” response to pain occurs when nerve endings called nociceptors become activated, which triggers a cascade of signals that move through the nerves and into the spinal cord and brain. Once this happens, the situation becomes more complicated because the pain signals interact with various brain regions, including the ones involved in thinking and emotion.”There’s quite a pattern of activity that permeates through the brain that leads to all the complexities of what we feel associated with that initial hurt,” says Davis.Robyn Crook, a brain researcher at San Francisco State University, studies the evolution of pain and is currently comparing how the pain system works in mammals with how it works in squids and octopuses.One of the questions she is trying to answer is why the brain links pain with emotion.Crook says the most obvious purpose pain serves is the prevention or limitation of damage to the body. If you touch a hot stove, the pain will make you quickly move your hand away, but evolution did not stop there, she says.”In some animals with more complex brains, there’s also an emotional or a suffering component to the experience.”In dogs, for instance, pain seems to cause a similar level of distress to that seen in humans and one reason for this could involve memory: I felt like I was being attacked by this invisible enemy. It was nothing that I asked for, and I didn’t even know how to battle it.” Source:The original interview, which was conducted by Jon Hamilton for WESM 91.3 FM can be found here.
Source:WileyJournal reference:Ris, D. et al. (2019) Neuropsychological and socioeconomic outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric low‐grade glioma. Cancer. doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32186. Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 24 2019Survivors of childhood brain tumors who received radiotherapy and were very young at the time of diagnosis may experience cognitive and socioeconomic burdens decades after treatment, according to a study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. Interventions such as cognitive therapies and educational and occupational services may be needed to mitigate such long-term effects.Therapies for children diagnosed with brain tumors have prolonged the lives of many patients, but survivors may experience a variety of effects from their disease and its treatment. To assess such burdens, M. Douglas Ris, PhD, of Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, and his colleagues at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, compared 181 survivors of pediatric low-grade glioma with 105 siblings of cancer survivors who were participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. The survivors and siblings all completed a comprehensive battery of standardized cognitive tests and socioeconomic assessments performed at 16 major medical centers in the United States and Canada.Related StoriesWearing a hearing aid may mitigate dementia riskAn active brain and body associated with reduced risk of dementiaRush University Medical Center offers new FDA-approved treatment for brain aneurysmsSurvivors were a median age of 8 years at the time of diagnosis and they were a median age of 40 years at the time of assessment. Overall, survivors treated with surgery plus radiotherapy at the site of the tumor had lower estimated IQ scores than survivors treated with surgery only, who had lower scores than siblings. Survivors diagnosed at younger ages had low scores on most of the cognitive measures. Survivors—especially those treated with surgery plus radiotherapy—were less educated, earned lower incomes, and had lower prestige occupations than siblings. Late effects in adulthood are evident even for children with the least malignant types of brain tumors who were treated with the least toxic therapies available at the time. Also, these neurocognitive and socioeconomic risks are evident many decades after treatment. As pediatric brain tumors become more survivable with continued advances in treatments, we need to improve surveillance of these populations so that survivors continue to receive the best interventions during their transition to adulthood and well beyond.”Dr. Douglas Ris, Baylor College of Medicine
Our findings show that increased levels of stress and altered metabolism of an individual’s immune cells are factors that make one prone to developing symptoms during an infection. Correspondingly, this tells us that immune cells and metabolic pathways could be useful targets to develop treatments for yellow fever or other flaviviral infections.”Associate Professor Jenny Low, Senior Consultant at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital and Co-Director of ViREMiCS Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jul 16 2019A team of researchers from the SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medicine Centre’s Viral Research and Experimental Medicine Centre (ViREMiCS) found that immune cells undergoing stress and an altered metabolism are the reasons why some individuals become sick from viral infections while others do not, when exposed to the same virus.The findings, published in top medical journal Nature Medicine, have important implications for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases caused by flaviviral infections such as dengue fever, congenital Zika syndrome and yellow fever. Flaviviral infections, a family of virus infections transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, are major health concerns as they spread rapidly and lack licensed treatments.Most viral infections result in a range of outcomes even when individuals are infected with the same amount of virus in their blood. For example, up to two-thirds of all dengue virus infections result in no symptoms, while the remaining one-third go on to develop dengue fever and even fewer progress to severe dengue. Understanding why this happens could lead to new ways of preventing disease and reduce the burden of some viral diseases.”We investigated why some individuals do not get sick despite being infected with the same virus, while others develop symptoms and infections. Understanding the molecular events that lead to development of symptoms could lead to new prevention and treatment methods for infectious diseases worldwide,” said Professor Ooi Eng Eong, Deputy Director of the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School and Professor, SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute. Prof Ooi is also Co-director of ViREMiCS, Professor at the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health and the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, National University of Singapore and the corresponding author of this study.Related StoriesDon’t Miss the Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Delivery (B3DD) Summit this AugustStudy explores the effects of near-miss experiences associated with 9/11 terrorist attacksIt is okay for women with lupus to get pregnant with proper care, says new studyThe team conducted two clinical trials involving more than 100 healthy adults using the yellow fever vaccine, one of the most effective vaccines in the world with an excellent safety profile. The team analysed the blood profiles of the volunteers immediately before and after vaccination, and found that individuals whose blood cells had increased levels of stress from protein production and altered metabolism before vaccination went on to develop flu-like symptoms after vaccination. Increased stress and altered metabolism resulted in earlier than expected activation of the immune response that was linked with development of symptoms. Dr Low is also Associate Professor at Duke-NUS’ EID Programme and co-corresponding author of this study.These findings also imply that preventing conditions known to place cells under increased stress and altered metabolism, such as obesity, could prevent disease from viral infections.The team is currently starting another clinical trial in 2020 to test if suppressing the early immune response can reduce the likelihood of getting sick from a viral infection. Source:Duke-NUS Medical SchoolJournal reference:Chan, K.R. et al. (2019) Metabolic perturbations and cellular stress underpin susceptibility to symptomatic live-attenuated yellow fever infection. Nature Medicine. doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0510-7.
The EU approved the $66 billion buyout of US agri-giant Monsanto by German chemical firm Bayer. The EU on Wednesday approved the proposed blockbuster buyout of US agri-giant Monsanto by German chemical firm Bayer after securing concessions in order to win approval. Citation: EU greenlights controversial Bayer-Monsanto takeover (2018, March 21) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-eu-greenlights-controversial-bayer-monsanto-takeover.html EU to greenlight Bayer-Monsanto takeover: source “We have approved Bayer’s plans to take over Monsanto because the parties’ remedies, worth well over 6 billion euros ($7.4 billion), meet our competition concerns in full,” said Commissioner Margrethe Vestager, the EU’s anti-trust chief.Brussels launched an in-depth investigation in August into the $66 billion (56-billion-euro) deal, which would create the world’s largest integrated pesticides and seeds company and raised alarm among activists.The European Commission, which serves as the powerful anti-trust regulator for the 28-nation European Union, at the time cited concerns it could reduce competition in key products for farmers.Brussels made the decesion despite opposition by environmentalists who fear that the deal gives too much power to the world’s leading manufacturers of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the controversial weedkiller glyphosate.The tie-up has already won approval by Chinese authorities, but still awaits the crucial approval by US regulators, which have voiced concerns.The EU has won several concessions from Bayer including the announced sale in October by Bayer of parts of its agrochemical business to German rival BASF.That deal would see Bayer sell the lion’s share of its crop seeds units and its glyphosate herbicide business to BASF for 5.9 billion euros ($7 billion).Earlier this month, BASF also committed to buying Bayer’s vegetable seed business in a last minute concession to Brussels.Bayer chief executive Werner Baumann said last month that if it receives the Commission’s go-ahead, the Monsanto deal could be completed sometime in the second quarter.In a letter to Vestager, the competition commissioner, activists from Friends of Europe warned against the merger due to its consequences for the environment.”Blocking this deeply unpopular merger would be a big win for the EU -– over a million citizens have called on EU competition chief Margrethe Vestager to block this merger from hell,” the activists said in a statement.The EU acknowledged the opposition but insisted that it could “assess the merger solely from a competition perspective.””This assessment must be impartial and is subject to the scrutiny of the European Courts,” it added.Bayer’s takeover is the latest in a wave of consolidation in the competitive and politically sensitive agrochemicals sector.China’s state-owned ChemChina has completed its $43 billion takeover of Switzerland’s Syngenta, and the nearly $150 billion tie-up of US giants Dow Chemical and DuPont has also been completed. Explore further © 2018 AFP This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: France to beef up emergency alert system on social media (2018, May 29) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-france-beef-emergency-social-media.html The ministry said in a statement that from June during immediate threats of danger, such as a terror attack, the ministry’s alerts will be given priority broadcast on Twitter, Facebook and Google as well as on French public transport and television.The statement said that Twitter will give “special visibility” to the ministry’s alerts with a banner.In a specific agreement, Facebook will also allow the French government to communicate to people directly via the social network’s “safety check” tool, created in 2014.The ministry said that this is the first time in Europe that Facebook has allowed public authorities to use this tool in this way.This announcement comes as a much-derided attack alert app launched in 2016 called SAIP is being withdrawn after malfunctions. Explore further Facebook faces Indonesia investigation over privacy breach © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. France’s Interior Ministry announced plans on Tuesday to beef up its emergency alert system to the public across social media.
“Talent, creativity and tomorrow’s breakthrough ideas aren’t limited by region or ZIP code,” Cook said in a statement.Cities around the country offered financial incentives in an attempt to land Apple’s new campus, but Cook avoided a high-profile competition that pitted them against one another, as Amazon had before deciding to build huge new offices in New York and Virginia. One tech giant strung dozens of North American cities through a circus-like contest that led mayors and governors to desperately pitch their regions—and offer huge sums of public money—in hopes of landing a gleaming new corporate campus. The other swept in quietly before making its big move. Apple to build new Austin hub, expand in other tech hotbeds Texas Gov. Greg Abbott speaks about Apple’s new campus announcement in Austin, Texas, Thursday, Dec, 13, 2018. Apple plans to build a $1 billion campus in Austin, that will create at least 5,000 jobs ranging from engineers to call-center agents while adding more luster to a Southwestern city that has already become a bustling tech hub. The decision, announced Thursday, comes 11 months after Apple CEO Tim Cook disclosed plans to open a major office outside California on the heels of a massive tax break passed by Congress last year. (Ricardo Brazziell/Austin American-Statesman via AP) Cities have been eager to bring in more tech employers because their hires often make six-figure salaries. That can ripple through the economy, with new employees filling restaurants and theaters, buying property and paying taxes.But an influx of affluent tech workers can also drive up rent and home prices, making it more difficult for those in lower-paying jobs to make ends meet.”When tech companies invest in a place and try to hire thousands of workers, it is of course good news for tech workers who are already there and want to be there,” said Jed Kolko, chief economist for employment website Indeed.com. “But it can put a strain on the housing market and transportation.”Texas Gov. Greg Abbott hailed Apple’s new campus as a milestone development that “truly elevates Austin as one of the premier technology hubs in the entire world.”Apple’s move was cheered Friday by President Donald Trump, who thanked Cook in a tweet for “agreeing” to expand its U.S. operations. It was sharp change in tone from September, when Trump responded to Cook’s concerns about tariffs by telling Apple to make its products in the U.S. instead of China. Apple uses plants in China and elsewhere to produce components and assemble its products. Amazon could receive up to $2.8 billion in incentives in New York, depending on how many it ultimately hires there, and up to $750 million in Virginia. Apple will receive up to $25 million from a jobs-creation fund in Texas in addition to property-tax rebates, which still need approval. The figure is expected to be a small fraction of what Amazon received.The government incentives offered to Apple seem “more in the line of normal business site selection” compared with Amazon’s public “shakedown,” said Mark Muro, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution’s Metropolitan Policy Center.”There’s a growing backlash in the country against the entire process of subsidies and relocation inducements,” Muro said. “That said, the Apple numbers for a very significant increase in jobs are much less eye-popping than the Amazon numbers.”The spots where Amazon and Apple decided to expand were obvious choices, based on an analysis released earlier this year by CBRE Research. Washington, D.C., ranked as the third best place in North America for tech talent, behind Silicon Valley and Seattle. New York ranked fifth and Austin sixth. No. 4 was outside the U.S.: Toronto.The new Austin campus, with about 3 million square feet (nearly 280,000 square meters) of office space, will be about a mile from another large office that Apple opened five years ago. Apple currently employs about 6,200 workers in Austin, making it the company’s largest hub outside Silicon Valley even before the expansion.The new jobs are expected to mirror the same mix Apple already has at its Cupertino, California, headquarters, ranging from jobs in technology and research that pay well over $100,000 to lower-paying positions in customer call centers. The outcome was largely the same: Amazon and Apple are running out of room in their West Coast hometowns and establishing a major foothold in a handful of U.S. cities already known as second-tier technology hubs.But this week, at least, Apple may have won the prize for completing its search with the fewest hurt feelings.Apple announced plans Thursday to build a $1 billion campus in Austin, Texas, that will create at least 5,000 jobs ranging from engineers to call-center agents while adding more luster to a city that has already become a destination for tech startups and bigger companies.The decision comes 11 months after Apple CEO Tim Cook disclosed plans to open a major office outside California on the heels of a massive tax cut on overseas profits, which prompted the company to bring about $250 billion back to the U.S.The company said it will also open offices in Seattle, San Diego and Culver City, California, each employing at least 1,000 workers over the next three years. Apple also pledged to add hundreds of jobs each in New York; Pittsburgh; Boston; Boulder, Colorado; and Portland, Oregon.”They are just picking America’s most established superstar cities and tech hubs,” said Richard Florida, an urban development expert at the University of Toronto.Apple’s scattershot expansion reflects the increasing competition for engineers in Silicon Valley, which has long been the world’s high-tech capital. The bidding for programmers is driving salaries higher, which in turn is catapulting the average prices of homes in many parts of the San Francisco Bay Area above $1 million. Many high-tech workers are thus choosing to live elsewhere, causing major tech employers such as Apple, Amazon and Google to look in new places for the employees they need to pursue their future ambitions. Citation: Apple upstages Amazon in selecting new tech hub locations (2018, December 14) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-apple-upstages-amazon-tech-hub.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Apple employees attend an event about Apple’s new campus announcement in Austin, Texas, Thursday, Dec, 13, 2018. Apple plans to build a $1 billion campus in Austin, that will create at least 5,000 jobs ranging from engineers to call-center agents while adding more luster to a Southwestern city that has already become a bustling tech hub. The decision, announced Thursday, comes 11 months after Apple CEO Tim Cook disclosed plans to open a major office outside California on the heels of a massive tax break passed by Congress last year. (Ricardo Brazziell/Austin American-Statesman via AP) © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Deirdre O’Brien, Apple’s Vice President of People, speaks during an event about Apple’s new campus announcement in Austin, Texas, Thursday, Dec, 13, 2018. Apple plans to build a $1 billion campus in Austin, that will create at least 5,000 jobs ranging from engineers to call-center agents while adding more luster to a Southwestern city that has already become a bustling tech hub. The decision, announced Thursday, comes 11 months after Apple CEO Tim Cook disclosed plans to open a major office outside California on the heels of a massive tax break passed by Congress last year. (Ricardo Brazziell/Austin American-Statesman via AP)
Quick return on investmentThe army’s systems have many thousands of types of spare parts. Based on his research, Westerweel expects that a total of 10-20 percent of the components of the armed forces can be made by additive manufacturing, also known as 3-D printing. The total savings by 3-D printing on relatively large peacekeeping missions like the ones in Mali and Sudan, could then run up to hundreds of thousands. The printer itself costs a one-off €25,000, making for a quick return on investment. The Dutch army is already experimenting with such a printer in Mali.Simply too expensiveWesterweel’s research took a broader perspective of the possibilities of including 3-D printers in the logistics chain of supplying spare parts. Such logistics are not easy, especially for complex technical systems on remote locations. 3-D printers are sometimes seen as the definitive solution: zero stock, just a printer that makes parts on demand. However, Westerweel’s work shows that this is often not feasible. In many cases it is simply too expensive to shut down a technical system until a new part has been printed. In these cases, parts must be ‘on the shelf’ so that they can be replaced immediately.Printing hubsFar-reaching efficiency does seem possible via a new business model, which Westerweel also investigated. This business model is based on equipment builders shifting from selling and shipping physical parts, to selling licenses for digital design files that allow others, anywhere in the world, to print parts locally. Such licensing of intellectual property also allows the supply chain to completely decentralize, with traditional mass-manufacturing facilities being replaced by local printing hubs that can simply download component designs from central servers. Peacekeeping missions often take place at remote locations, requiring the army to have a large supply of spare parts on site to keep everything running. Dutch researcher Bram Westerweel comes to the conclusion that taking a 3-D printer on a mission to print parts can save hundreds of thousands of euros and, at the same time, reduce the downtime of defense equipment. The savings on operational costs sometimes total more than half. The findings of Westerweel, who received his Ph.D. yesterday, can also be applied to industries with remote locations, such as the offshore industry. Provided by Eindhoven University of Technology A camera mount for an army vehicle, produced with a 3-D-printer. Credit: Herman Zonderland/Media Centrum Defensie This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Citation: 3-D printer makes peacekeeping missions cheaper and repair of defense systems faster (2019, May 16) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-d-printer-peacekeeping-missions-cheaper.html Researchers 3-D print ultra-strong steel parts from powder
Gotcha! US Air Force’s Secretive X-37B Space Plane Spotted by Satellite Tracker Secretive Space Plane: Meet the X-37B | VideoThe unmanned X-37B space plane built by Boeing’s Phantom Works division is undergoing orbital flight tests for the U.S. Air Force.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Fomalhaut Stars Huge Ring of Dusty Debris Captured by ALMA | Video00:54 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65884-x-37b-space-plane-skywatcher-photo.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0002:4502:45Your Recommended Playlist00:54Fomalhaut Stars Huge Ring of Dusty Debris Captured by ALMA | Video00:43OTD in Space – July 16: Apollo 11 Launches to the Moon13:13Apollo 11 Astronaut Michael Collins Talks Launch on 50th Anniversary05:46Constellations and Planets In March 2017 Skywatching – Where to Look | Video02:22Skywatching Planets and the Harvest Moon In September 2014 | Video02:52Planets and the Moon in June 2019 Skywatching关闭 Gallery: Declassified US Spy Satellite Photos & Designs Skywatcher and satellite tracker Ralf Vandebergh of the Netherlands recently caught a rare glimpse of the U.S. Air Force’s secretive X-37B space plane. Vandebergh said he’d been hunting for the robotic spacecraft for months and finally managed to track it down in May. But it took a bit longer to get photos of the vehicle. “When I tried to observe it again [in] mid-June, it didn’t meet the predicted time and path,” Vandebergh explained. “It turned out to have maneuvered to another orbit. Thanks to the amateur satellite observers’ network, it was rapidly found in orbit again, and I was able to take some images on June 30 and July 2.”Advertisement The X-37B’s recent passes were almost overhead, Vandebergh added. Related: The X-37B Space Plane: 6 Surprising Facts Beyond expectations The X-37B, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), looks like a miniature version of NASA’s retired space shuttle. “It is really a small object, even at only 300 kilometers [186 miles] altitude, so don’t expect the detail level of ground-based images of the real space shuttle,” Vandebergh said. Taking this into consideration, the newly captured imagery far exceeded Vandebergh’s expectations. “We can recognize a bit of the nose, payload bay and tail of this mini-shuttle, with even a sign of some smaller detail,” he said. Vandebergh captured the photos using a 10-inch F/4,8 aperture Newtonian telescope with an Astrolumina ALccd 5L-11 mono CMOS camera. Tracking was fully manual through a 6×30 finderscope, he said. Classified duties The X-37B has winged past 666 days of flight on this latest mission, which is called OTV-5 because it’s the fifth flight for the program. OTV-5 began on Sept. 7, 2017, with a launch atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 booster from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. X-37B missions are carried out under the auspices of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, and mission control for OTV flights is handled by the 3rd Space Experimentation Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado. This squadron oversees operations of the X-37B and is tagged as the Air Force Space Command’s premier organization for space-based demonstrations, pathfinders and experiment testing, gathering information on objects high above Earth and carrying out other intelligence-gathering duties. And that may be a signal as to what the robotic craft is doing — both looking down at Earth and upward. Related: US Air Force’s Secretive X-37B Space Plane (Infographic) Flight-duration record Each X-37B mission has set a new flight-duration record for the program: Most X-37B payloads are classified, and the Air Force releases few details about the spacecraft’s orbit and activities. The only OTV-5 payload that Air Force officials have revealed is the Advanced Structurally Embedded Thermal Spreader, or ASETS-II. Developed by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), this cargo is testing experimental electronics and oscillating heat pipes for long-duration stints in the space environment. According to AFRL, the payload’s three primary science objectives are to measure initial on-orbit thermal performance, to measure long duration thermal performance, and to assess any lifetime degradation. Tarmac touchdown Exactly when OTV-5 will end is unknown. The last X-37B mission touched down at KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility — a first for the program. All prior missions had ended with a tarmac touchdown at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Several website postings say that the sixth mission, OTV-6, is planned for this year on a United Launch Alliance Atlas-5(501) rocket. Launch would be from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Space Launch Complex-41. Reusable vehicles The classified X-37B program “fleet” consists of two known reusable vehicles, both of which were built by Boeing. The X-37B vehicles were built at several Boeing locations in Southern California, including Huntington Beach, Seal Beach and El Segundo. The program transitioned to the U.S. Air Force in 2004 after earlier funded research efforts by Boeing, NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The military space plane is 29 feet (8.8 meters) long and 9.6 feet (2.9 m) tall, with a wingspan of nearly 15 feet (4.6 m). The X-37B’s payload bay, which measures 7 feet (2.1 m) by 4 feet (1.2 m), can be outfitted with a robotic arm. The spacecraft has a launch weight of 11,000 lbs. (4,990 kilograms) and is powered on orbit by gallium-arsenide solar cells with lithium-ion batteries. Prior to OTV-5’s launch, Randy Walden, the director of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office, said there were many firsts on this mission, making it a milestone for the program. “It is our goal to continue advancing the X-37B OTV so it can more fully support the growing space community,” he said at the time. The Air Force also noted that OTV-5 was launched into, and will be landed from, a higher-inclination orbit than prior missions to further expand the X-37B’s orbital envelope. Leonard David is author of the recently released book, “Moon Rush: The New Space Race” published by National Geographic in May 2019. A longtime writer for Space.com, David has been reporting on the space industry for more than five decades. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook. by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 minute and see why everyone is addictedVikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoArticles VallyDad Cuts Daughter’s Hair Off For Getting Birthday Highlights, Then Mom Does The UnthinkableArticles VallyUndoGundry MD Total Restore SupplementU.S. Cardiologist: It’s Like a Pressure Wash for Your InsidesGundry MD Total Restore SupplementUndoLivestlyThe List Of Dog Breeds To Avoid At All CostsLivestlyUndoScience101This Is The Smartest Dog Breed According To VeterinariansScience101Undo In Photos: SpaceX Launches X-37B Space Plane, Lands Falcon 9 Rocket
Homeostatic points can be adaptive. For example, in anticipation of a meal, the body secretes extra insulin, ghrelin and other hormones to prepare the body for the incoming flood of calories, rather than wrestling to control blood sugar and energy stores in its wake. Credit: Shutterstock How homeostasis is maintained Many homeostatic systems listen for distress signals from the body to know when key variables fall out of their appropriate range. The nervous system detects these deviations and reports back to a control center, often based in the brain. The control center then directs muscles, organs and glands to correct for the disturbance. The continual loop of disturbance and adjustment is known as “negative feedback,” according to the online textbook Anatomy and Physiology. For example, the human body maintains a core temperature of about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius). When overheated, thermosensors in the skin and brain sound an alarm, initiating a chain reaction that directs the body to sweat and flush. When chilled, the body responds by shivering, and reducing blood circulation to the skin. Similarly, when sodium levels spike, the body signals the kidneys to conserve water and expel excess salt in concentrated urine, according to two NIH-funded studies. Animals will also adjust their behavior in response to negative feedback. For example, when overheated, we may shed a layer of clothing, move into the shade, or drink a cold glass of water. Modern models of homeostasis The concept of negative feedback dates back to Cannon’s description of homeostasis in the 1920s, and was the first explanation of how homeostasis works. But in recent decades, many scientists argue that organisms are able to anticipate potential disruptions to homeostasis, rather than only reacting to them after the fact. This alternate model of homeostasis, known as allostasis, implies that the ideal set point for a particular variable can shift in response to transient environmental changes, according to a 2015 article in Psychological Review. The point may shift under the influence of circadian rhythms, menstrual cycles or daily fluctuations in body temperature. Set points may also change in response to physiological phenomena, like fever, or to compensate for multiple homeostatic processes taking place at the same time, according to a 2015 review in Advances in Physiology Education. “The set points themselves aren’t fixed but can show adaptive plasticity,” said Art Woods, a biologist at the University of Montana in Missoula. “This model allows for anticipatory responses to upcoming potential disturbances to set points.” For example, in anticipation of a meal, the body secretes extra insulin, ghrelin and other hormones, according to a 2007 review in Appetite. This preemptive measure readies the body for the incoming flood of calories, rather than wrestling to control blood sugar and energy stores in its wake. The ability to shift set points allows animals to adapt to short-term stressors, but they may fail in the face of long-term challenges, such as climate change. “Activating homeostatic response systems can be fine for short periods of time,” Woods said. But they’re not designed to last for long. “Homeostatic systems can fail catastrophically if they are pushed too far; so, although systems may be able to handle near-term novel climates, they may not be able to handle larger changes over longer periods of time.” Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal state that persists despite changes in the world outside. All living organisms, from plants to puppies to people, must regulate their internal environment to process energy and ultimately survive. If your blood pressure skyrockets or body temperature plummets, for example, your organ systems may struggle to do their jobs and eventually fail. Why homeostasis is important Physiologist Walter Cannon coined the term “homeostasis” in the 1920s, expanding on previous work by late physiologist Claude Bernard. In the 1870s, Bernard described how complex organisms must maintain balance in their internal environment, or “milieu intérieur,” in order to lead a “free and independent life” in the world beyond. Cannon honed the concept, and introduced homeostasis to popular audiences through his book, “The Wisdom of the Body” (The British Medical Journal, 1932). [The 7 Biggest Mysteries of the Human Body] Hailed as a core tenet of physiology, Cannon’s basic definition of homeostasis remains in use today. The term derives from Greek roots meaning “similar” and “a state of stability.” The prefix “homeo” stresses that homeostasis doesn’t work like a thermostat or cruise control in a car, fixed at one precise temperature or speed. Instead, homeostasis holds important physiological factors within an acceptable range of values, according to a review in the journal Appetite.Advertisement The human body, for example, regulates its internal concentrations of hydrogen, calcium, potassium and sodium, charged particles that cells rely on for normal function. Homeostatic processes also maintain water, oxygen, pH and blood sugar levels, as well as core body temperature, according to a 2015 review in Advances in Physiology Education. In healthy organisms, homeostatic processes unfold constantly and automatically, according to Scientific American. Multiple systems often work in tandem to hold steady a single physiological factor, like body temperature. If these measures falter or fail, an organism may succumb to disease, or even death. Toucan’s Bill Doubles as RadiatorHeat-sensing video shows how the toucan’s bill radiates heat to reduce the bird’s body temperature when asleep.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65938-homeostasis.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:4800:48Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball00:29Video – Giggly Robot02:31Surgical Robotics关闭 Check out helpful graphics about homeostasis from the Khan Academy. Learn how homeostasis impacts human physiology with Crash Course. Watch this video from the Amoeba Sisters to learn more about negative feedback. Keeping information flowing Homeostatic systems may have primarily evolved to help organisms maintain optimal function in different environments and situations. But, according to a 2013 essay in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution, some scientists theorize that homeostasis primarily provides a “quiet background” for cells, tissues and organs to communicate with each other. The theory posits that homeostasis makes it easier for organisms to extract important information from the environment and shuttle signals between body parts. Regardless of its evolutionary purpose, homeostasis has shaped research in the life sciences for nearly a century. Though mostly discussed in the context of animal physiology, homeostatic processes also enable plants to manage energy stores, nourish cells and respond to environmental challenges. Beyond biology, the social sciences, cybernetics, computer science and engineering all use homeostasis as a framework to understand how people and machines maintain stability despite disruptions. Additional resources:by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoGundry MD Total Restore SupplementU.S. Cardiologist: It’s Like a Pressure Wash for Your InsidesGundry MD Total Restore SupplementUndoNucificTop Dr. Reveals The 1 Nutrient Your Gut Must HaveNucificUndoEditorChoice.com30 Chilling Locations – Abandoned And Left To DecayEditorChoice.comUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndo
COMMENTS COMMENT Published on The hike in natural gas prices by 10 per cent will have a spiralling effect on the prices of CNG, PNG, urea, fertilisers and electricity, the Congress claimed on Monday. The party termed the rise in fuel prices as unpardonable and said the Narendra Modi government has burnt gaping holes in the pockets of common people.Spiralling effectParty spokesman Pawan Khera said the mirage of Achhe Din has been shattered beyond repair. Non-Subsidised LPG cooking gas cylinder prices have increased by ₹465 since the Modi government has come to power, Khera said and added that it will have a spiralling effect on the prices of many other products. “This will result in increase in cost to generate electricity, thereby impacting our electricity bills. Couple all this with the ever increasing prices of petrol and diesel, and the decimation of the budgets of the common people is complete,” he told reporters at the AICC headquarters.‘Subsidy, a jumla’He said the call for giving up cooking gas subsidies has turned out to be the biggest jumla on both the middle class and poor people. He said the prices of subsidised gas cylinder have gone up from ₹412 per cylinder (May 2014) to ₹502 (September 2018), which is an increase of ₹90 per cylinder in 52 months of Modi government.‘Ujjwala scheme, a flop’Khera said the ‘Ujjwala Scheme’ is not guaranteeing a second refill. “Under Ujjwala Scheme, Modi government gives so-called concession of ₹1,600 for the gas connection. This cost is also eventually paid by the beneficiary in instalments. The cost of gas burner, as also of first cylinder, too is paid in instalments. Thereafter, the entire cost of every subsequent cylinder refill is also paid by the beneficiary. Absence of resources with the beneficiaries is the principle reason for its failure,” he said.Duty hikesHe said since May 2014, the Centre has increased excise duty 12 times, raising the central excise duty on petrol by 211 per cent and on diesel by 443 per cent. “Customs duty has been increased manifold. This has led to a ₹12-lakh crore ‘fuel loot’ by ‘fleecing and duping’ the common people. Why doesn’t Modi government roll back the excise and custom duty to give relief of ₹10-15 per litre?” he asked.The Congress leader also demanded to know why petrol and diesel prices continue to rise despite average crude price during the last 52 months has been 55 per cent lesser than that during the UPA tenure. October 01, 2018 SHARE SHARE EMAIL politics prices, inflation and deflation customs and excise natural gas SHARE
The Congress released its third list of candidates for the Rajasthan Assembly election, declaring 10 new names and replacing three previously-declared nominees. It has left five seats for its allies. With this, the Congress and its allies have announced party-wise distribution on 199 seats out of the total 200 in the state for the December 7 election.The Congress had declared 152 candidates in its first list and 32 in the second list.Congress sources said the party is likely to give the remaining one seat to the Samajwadi Party. In the third list that came out a day before the last date of filing nominations, the Congress has fielded its sitting Alwar MP Karan Singh Yadav from Kishangarh Bas Assembly constituency. The party decided to field former PCC chief B D Kalla from Bikaner West. He replaces the already-declared candidate Yashpal Gehlot, who will now contest from Bikaner East Assembly seat, from where he replaces Kanhayia Lal Jhawar. The party has given two seats of Bharatpur and Malpura to Rashtriya Lok Dal candidates; one seat (Bali) to NCP; and Kushalgarh and Mundawar seats to Loktantrik Janata Dal of Sharad Yadav.The Congress also replaced its candidate from Keshoraipatan seat, where Rakesh Boyat replaces C L Premi, whose candidature was declared earlier. Karan Singh – File photo COMMENT Published on The Congress has fielded its sitting Alwar MP Karan Singh Yadav from Kishangarh Bas Assembly constituency. SHARE SHARE EMAIL November 18, 2018 COMMENTS SHARE