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"Warcup said, again as far back as 1988 a study by the New York County Lawyers’ Association compared HIV infection rates in states where needles were available without a prescription and thus more accessible to those where they were not The AIDS rates were six times higher in the more restricted states and the restricted states actually had more IV drug use not less New Yorks decades of experience should be a lesson for Indiana the federal government and the rest of the states that still limit needle access In 1990 before exchanges were fully legal here 54% of New Yorks roughly 200000 injection drug users tested HIV positive But by 2012 with needle exchange greatly expanded and prescription requirements for syringes dropped that figure was down to a mere 3% Though 30% to 50% of new infections were linked to IV drug use in the 1990s and 2000s today that proportion is around 5% And the number of new injectors has declined A state report released last year called needle exchange "the one intervention which could be described as the gold standard of HIV prevention" Because such positive findings have also been replicated worldwide the World Health Organization the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration the National Institutes of Health the Institute of Medicine the American Medical Association and basically every expert health group that has analyzed the data favors syringe exchange and legal needle access So why isnt needle exchange federally funded and why isnt over-the-counter syringe access legal in all states The answers lie in stigma politics and misunderstanding Since most people see needle use as insanely risky they assume that those who use them are completely irrational and unable to change any type of behavior until they give up drugs This is incorrect In fact its often easier to get addicted people to use clean needles than it is to get men who dont take drugs to use condoms Thats because theres no downside to clean syringes: they work better than shared ones because they are sharper and therefore both less painful and more likely to give a good high by accurately hitting a vein Condoms in contrast are unfortunately seen by many as diminishing pleasure or creating an extra hassle during sex The idea that needle exchange "encourages" IV drug use also isnt borne out even though it sounds plausible In fact the reason most people dont shoot up is not lack of needle access; its that they find the idea unduly dangerous disgusting and even repellant Needle exchange doesnt change that As for people who are already addicted generally they dont need any encouragement to use more Most addicted people use as much as they can Perhaps counterintuitively however needle exchange aids recovery by providing an alternative path to it When you are addicted you suffer no shortage of shame and distress about being so Indeed if you truly believed you could live safely and happily without drugs youd quit Unfortunately abstinence-based drug programs require you to give up substances the thing you most fear doing in order to participate In contrast needle exchanges "meet you where youre at" By giving needle users what they need to avoid infections the programs demonstrate viscerally that they believe addicted people have value even if they cant or wont quit That nonjudgmental acceptance is incredibly rare in lives beaten down by serious addictions and it often opens the door to hope Participants in needle exchanges see that they can take action to become healthier They also observe that the workers who hand out the needles are often former addicts who illustrate that change is possible Some injectors start volunteering at the exchanges themselves and see that they can make a difference to others Then they often begin to want to improve themselves even more maybe even by quitting drugs As a result needle exchanges have become a large source of referrals to treatment not a diversion away from it More than three decades of overwhelming data now shows that needle exchange programs do tremendous good while causing no discernible harm The only reason to oppose them today is ignorance or petty politics Governors and Congress have a stark choice: they can either "send the right message" to those who know nothing about the issue and restrict needle access or they can save lives and money As I wrote back in 1990 dead addicts dont recover Contact us at editors@timecom IDEAS TIME Ideas hosts the world’s leading voices providing commentary on events in news society and culture We welcome outside contributions Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editorsAs President Donald Trump prepared to meet Russian President Vladimir Putin Monday Russias Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a tweet it agrees with Trumps earlier message that US "foolishness and stupidity" is the reason for a low point in relations between the two countries "Our relationship with Russia has NEVER been worse thanks to many years of US foolishness and stupidity" Trump tweeted on Monday morning Our relationship with Russia has NEVER been worse thanks to many years of US foolishness and stupidity and now the Rigged Witch Hunt Donald J Trump (@realDonaldTrump) July 16 2018 The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs retweeted Trump’s message adding simply "We agree" We agree https://tco/7l087Qwmj3 MFA Russia ㇋9;㇌2; (@mfa_russia) July 16 2018 Trump sent the tweet early Monday morning from Helsinki where he was preparing to meet Putin for the first time since November 2017 The two leaders were scheduled to meet alone on Monday accompanied solely by interpreters for up to 90 minutes Putin showed up an hour late for the meeting The US-Russian relationship has been marred by a number of recent complications not least of which are allegations that Moscow tampered with the 2016 US presidential elections In his Monday morning tweet Trump referenced those charges and investigations into possible collusion between his campaign and Russia as a “rigged witch hunt” On Friday of last week US Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein announced charges against a handful of Russian intelligence officials for hacking Democratic targets in the US Earlier Trump had personally congratulated Putin for putting on "one of the best ever" World Cup tournaments following Frances victory in the final on Sunday Write to Billy Perrigo at billyperrigo@timecom" he added. amount for direct allocation to the beneficiaries has increased by 41% for Universities, This is unfair to you. who who was injured. "Most physicians reflexively give opioids to patients with fractures or broken bones.com. according to a law enforcement source who had seen the memo." Then she explained how she worked with the Republican chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and Republican Senate Leader Mitch McConnell to advance democracy in Myanmar.

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The White House has initiated a formal selection process run by a team that will include White House Counsel Neil Eggleston and will involve interviews and background checks both for security and for political viability. July 23 July 20 apparently useless bones purely vestigial and while it’s not quite a slam-dunk Under Arizona law Dinakaran said there was no political discussion with Sasikala a co-host at the Jet Set the woman’s ticket was refunded David Monson Monson highlighted his nearly 40 years of education experience before he retired in 2008 were found dead inside a home in the northern Australian city of Cairns on Friday White House Doesn’t Rule Out Cybercounterattack in Sony Hack The White House said it is currently devising a “proportional response” to the massive hack of Sony Pictures Entertainment Watch Stephen Colbert Bid Farewell to The Colbert Report Stephen Colbert brought an end Thursday to one of the greatest sustained performances in pop culture Uber has agreed to stop its services until Portland legalizes ride-sharing NASAs Kepler Telescope Discovers Another Planet NASA’s planet-hunting Kepler spacecraft has found another new planet the Multnomah County Health Department received word of 13 cases of acute gastrointestinal illness from people whod visited Blue Lake Regional Park An outbreak of the stomach bug norovirus last summer was linked to a popular lake destination in Oregon the update is said to improve general performance across Windows 10 computers 13 And subsequent generations of low-fiber-fed mice continued to lose whole groups of microbes as the bacteria reached such reduced numbers in the parents that they could not be passed on via birth But White House aides talk openly about the “deep state” of the foreign policy and intelligence apparatus that is distrustfulor worseof Trump Industry groups are up in arms Trump’s freewheeling style and rhetoric fly in the face of the Speaker’s efforts over the last five months and Ryan will be loathe to simply fall in line who is looking to turn the GOP into a party of serious policy Intelligence analysts and experts alike use satellite imagery to keep close track on movement at the three entrances to the tunnels for signals that a test might be comingNorth Korea has conducted six nuclear tests since 2006 We understand this is a difficult time for them This could be a turning point for North Korea We hope their new leadership will recognise that engagement with the international community offers the best prospect of improving the lives of ordinary North Korean people ‘We encourage North Korea to work for peace and security in the region and take the steps necessary to allow the resumption of the Six Party Talks on denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula’ China said it was ‘distressed’ to learn of his death but remained confident North Korea would remain united and that the two neighbours would keep up their cooperation Foreign Ministry spokesman Ma Zhaoxu said: ‘We were distressed to learn of the unfortunate passing of the senior-most North Korean leader Kim Jong Il and we express our grief about this and extend our condolences to the people of North Korea’ Surprise: South Korean soldiers react as they watch a news broadcast reporting the death of North Korean leader Kim Jong Il at the Seoul train station in Seoul South Korea Ma praised Kim as a ‘great leader’ who made ‘important contributions’ to relations with China and added: ‘We are confident that the North Korean people will be able to turn their anguish into strength and unify as one ‘China and North Korea will strive together to continue making positive contributions to consolidating and developing the traditional friendship between our two parties governments and peoples and to preserving the peace and stability of the Korean peninsula and the region’ North Korea is calling Kim Jong Il’s son a ‘great successor’ to the country’s guiding principle of self reliance as the country rallies around heir-apparent Kim Jong Un as the next leader The official Korean Central News Agency said the country ‘must faithfully revere respectable comrade Kim Jong Un’ and urged its 24 million citizens to rally behind him as it mourns The US dollar jumped in response to his death as uncertainty in North Korea increased the country’s safe-haven appeal Asian stock markets moved lower amid the news which raises the possibility of increased instability on the divided Korean peninsula South Korea’s Kospi index was down 39 per cent at 176789 and Japan’s Nikkei 225 index fell 08 per cent to 833100 Hong Kong’s Hang Seng slipped 2 per cent to 1792966 and the Shanghai Composite Index dropped 2 per cent to 217875 The news of Kim’s death came as North Korea prepared for a hereditary succession Kim Jong Il inherited power after his father revered North Korean founder Kim Il Sung died in 1994 In September 2010 Kim Jong Il introduced his third son the twenty-something Kim Jong Un as his successor placing him in high-ranking posts Kim Jong Il had been groomed for 20 years to lead the communist nation founded by his guerrilla fighter-turned-politician father and built according to the principle of ‘juche’ or self-reliance Few firm facts are available when it comes to North Korea one of the most isolated countries in the world and little is clear about the origins of the man known as the ‘Dear Leader’ North Korean legend has it he was born on Mount Paekdu one of Korea’s most cherished sites in 1942 a birth heralded in the heavens by a pair of rainbows and a brilliant new star Soviet records however indicate he was born in Siberia in 1941 Kim Il Sung who for years fought for independence from Korea’s colonial ruler Japan from a base in Russia emerged as a communist leader after returning to Korea in 1945 after Japan was defeated in World War II With the peninsula divided between the Soviet-administered north and the US-administered south Kim rose to power as North Korea’s first leader in 1948 while Syngman Rhee became South Korea’s first president The North invaded the South in 1950 sparking a war that would last three years kill millions of civilians and leave the peninsula divided by a Demilitarized Zone that today remains one of the world’s most heavily fortified In the North Kim Il Sung meshed Stalinist ideology with a cult of personality that encompassed him and his son Their portraits hang in every building in North Korea and on the lapels of every dutiful North Korean Kim Jong Il a graduate of Pyongyang’s Kim Il Sung University was 33 when his father anointed him his eventual successor Even before he took over as leader there were signs the younger Kim would maintain – and perhaps exceed – his father’s hard-line stance Mourning: Pyongyang residents weep as they are told that their leader Kim Jong Il has died South Korea has accused Kim of masterminding a 1983 bombing that killed 17 South Korean officials visiting Burma now known as Myanmar In 1987 the bombing of a Korean Air Flight killed all 115 people on board; a North Korean agent who confessed to planting the device said Kim ordered the downing of the plane himself Kim Jong Il took over after his father died in 1994 eventually taking the posts of chairman of the National Defence Commission commander of the Korean People’s Army and head of the ruling Worker’s Party while his father remained as North Korea’s ‘eternal president’ He faithfully carried out his father’s policy of ‘military first’ devoting much of the country’s scarce resources to its troops – even as his people suffered from a prolonged famine – and built the world’s fifth-largest military Kim also sought to build up the country’s nuclear arms arsenal which culminated in North Korea’s first nuclear test explosion an underground blast conducted in October 2006 Another test came in 2009 Alarmed regional leaders negotiated a disarmament-for-aid pact that the North signed in 2007 and began implementing later that year However the process continues to be stalled even as diplomats work to restart negotiations North Korea long hampered by sanctions and unable to feed its own people is desperate for aid Flooding in the 1990s that destroyed the largely mountainous country’s arable land left millions hungry Following the famine the number of North Koreans fleeing the country through China rose dramatically with many telling tales of hunger political persecution and rights abuses that officials in Pyongyang emphatically denied Kim often blamed the US for his country’s troubles and his regime routinely derides Washington-allied South Korea as a ‘puppet’ of the Western superpower US President George W Bush taking office in 2002 denounced North Korea as a member of an ‘axis of evil’ that also included Iran and Iraq He later described Kim as a ‘tyrant’ who starved his people so he could build nuclear weapons He said in 2005: ‘Look Kim Jong Il is a dangerous person He’s a man who starves his people He’s got huge concentration camps And… there is concern about his capacity to deliver a nuclear weapon’ Kim was an enigmatic leader But defectors from North Korea describe him as an eloquent and tireless orator primarily to the military units that form the base of his support The world’s best glimpse of the man was in 2000 when the liberal South Korean government’s conciliatory ‘sunshine’ policy toward the North culminated in the first-ever summit between the two Koreas and followed with unprecedented inter-Korean cooperation A second summit was held in 2007 with South Korea’s Roh Moo-hyunBut the thaw in relations drew to a halt in early 2008 when conservative President Lee Myung-bak took office in Seoul pledging to come down hard on communist North Korea Disputing accounts that Kim was ‘peculiar’ former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright characterized Kim as intelligent and well-informed saying the two had wide-ranging discussions during her visits to Pyongyang when Bill Clinton was US president ‘I found him very much on top of his brief’ she said Kim cut a distinctive if oft ridiculed figure Short and pudgy at 5-foot-3 he wore platform shoes and sported a permed bouffant Kim was said to have cultivated wide interests including professional basketball cars and foreign films He reportedly produced several North Korean films as well mostly historical epics with an ideological tinge A South Korean film director claimed Kim even kidnapped him and his movie star wife in the late 1970s spiriting them back to North Korea to make movies for him for a decade before they managed to escape from their North Korean agents during a trip to Austria Kim rarely travelled abroad and then only by train because of an alleged fear of flying once heading all the way by luxury rail car to Moscow indulging in his taste for fine food along the way One account of Kim’s lavish lifestyle came from Konstantin Pulikovsky a former Russian presidential envoy who wrote the book ‘The Orient Express’ about Kim’s train trip through Russia in July and August 2001 Pulikovsky who accompanied the North Korean leader said Kim’s 16-car private train was stocked with crates of French wine Live lobsters were delivered in advance to stations A Japanese cook later claimed he was Kim’s personal sushi chef for a decade writing that Kim had a wine cellar stocked with 10000 bottles and that in addition to sushi Kim ate shark’s fin soup – a rare delicacy – weekly ‘His banquets often started at midnight and lasted until morning The longest lasted for four days’ the chef who goes by the pseudonym Kenji Fujimoto was quoted as saying Kim is believed to have curbed his indulgent ways in recent years and looked slimmer in more recent video footage aired by North Korea’s state-run broadcaster Kim’s marital status wasn’t clear but he is believed to have married once and had at least three other companions He had at least three sons with two women as well as a daughter by a third His eldest son Kim Jong Nam 38 is believed to have fallen out of favor with his father after he was caught trying to enter Japan on a fake passport in 2001 saying he wanted to visit Disney’s Tokyo resort His two other sons by another woman Kim Jong Chul and Kim Jong Un are in their 20s Their mother reportedly died several years ago"I do not see eye to eye with President (Donald) Trump and Republicans in Congress on many issues" she said at the beginning of her three-minute talk "But I firmly believe that people don’t send their elected representatives to Washington just to squabble; they send us here to get things done So where we are able to identify areas of common ground and where the president is willing to work in good faith I and many of my colleagues stand ready to work with him"She began with an issue where she said was agreement: "skyrocketing costs of prescription drugs"Sitting in front of doors that appeared to show the US Capitol in the background and an American flag and books behind her she noted that Trump talked about medicine costs in his State of the Union speech Tuesday night and that Democrats have introduced proposals to push the prices down"Republicans have refused to put patients before profits" she said "They need to work with us in order to tackle this issue"She also said she might support Trump’s plan to spend $15 trillion on infrastructure such things as roads schools and hospitals "If the president commits to making a serious investment from the federal government he’ll have a partner in me and many of my Democratic colleagues But if the plan that President Trump and Republicans in Congress unveil is little more than a giveaway to giant companies that stand to make huge profits you can count us out"Smith said that Trump talks a good game but usually does not back up that with action And she said he usually has left Democrats out of discussions"Mr President" Smith said "Democrats stand ready to work with you But if you are unwilling to work with us in good faith know that we won’t back down from a fight"Smith may get other high-profile gigs as Democrats try to hold onto the Minnesota Senate seat State Sen Karin Housley of St Mary’s Point is the only Republican challenger so far in the 2018 electionAfter having stayed in hospital for 10 days forcing the closure of an interstate highway and evacuation of a school in the first rail accident involving crude in a year when Democrats fell short in the 2nd and 3rd districts Goodhue and Wabasha counties There’s no way the loot is shared without the thief getting a fair portion "Weve been told that local politicians here have put the press under pressure not to report violence in this area the present formula by which was found in the room of his 27-year-old boyfriend didnt have a financial reward to offerThe determined guy according to a news release Law enforcement believe she died from lack of heatThe Chief Justice of Nigeria CJN Justice Walter Onnoghen on Monday disclosed that the rapid growth of population in the country has placed the judiciary under pressure He consequently urged Judges and Magistrates to embrace the use of technology saying it was the only way that enormous challenges of dispute resolution in the 21st Century could be met The National Population Commission NPC has put Nigeria’s current population at 198 million people with urban population growing at an average annual growth rate of about 65 per cent “We are faces with an ever present clamour and demand for speedy affordable and efficient administration of Justice Our ability to respond to the growing demand of judicial services goes a long way in determining our credibility and integrity “You will agree with me that we must continuously rise to the occasion in order to justify public confidence reposed in the judiciary” the CJN stated He spoke at the opening ceremony of the 2018 Refresher Course for Magistrates taking place at the National Judicial Institute NJI in Abuja Justice Onnoghen stressed that Magistracy occupies an important position in the architecture of the Nigerian Judiciary saying it plays significant role in the administration of Justice “Your worships entertain the majority of criminal and civil cases and to many you are the face of Justice With the expendable access to the grass root your courts are the entry points to the judiciary and therefore crucial to the justice system “Consequently you are expected to hear dispassionately consider soberly and adjudicate appropriately He maintained that technology has transformed the manner in which activities are carried out in courts “such as service of court processes record keeping and retrieval of data and other operations “I therefore urge you to embrace technology in discharging your judicial responsibilities within the ambit of the law “I urge you to ensure that you are proficient in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Indeed I must inform you that the e-proficiency will become a veritable pre-requisite for career advancement within our judiciary in no distant future “Therefore it will be in your own interest to key in to these reforms in order not to be left behind like a fossil while the rest of the Judiciary make the evolutionary leap into an automated Judiciary “My Lords Distinguished participants continuing judicial education is a mandatory requirement for every Judicial Officer who sits on the Bench for adjudication Thus regular research will hirther improve your competence sharpen your skills and enhance your diligence in maintaining high standard of justice administration in our courts “It is therefore advisable for your Worships to keep abreast with recent developments in law and judicial precedents of Superior Courts so that you will not be found wanting in the performance of your duties “It is pertinent to remind you as Magistrates that you must be mindful of your professional duties as well as the ethical content of our Code of Conduct for Judicial Officers It is an indispensible guide to the proper conduct and performance of your duties “The Code of Conduct for Judicial Officers embodies the best ethical practices that we must adopt if we are to uphold our independence and respect for the Rule of Law “At this juncture I urge you to always take charge of your courts in the discharge of your judicial functions You must remain diligent conscientious and imbibe the fear of the Almighty God in the discharge of your duties” The Methodist Archbishop of Abuja the Most Rev Joseph Oche-Job has called for a determined action from the Federal Government to stop the lingering senseless killings by suspected herders in Benue and Taraba Oche-Job made the call on the sidelines of the 24th Annual Synod Diocese in Abuja on Saturday He also urged the government to replicate the kind of action it had taken to “subdue Boko Haram in the North East’’ in the Middle Belt where Nigerians are being slaughtered “We had thought that after over 73 persons were slaughtered and buried in a mass grave in one day in Benu the killings would come to an end “But on Thursday we heard that 62 others had been killed again in Benue “So we want the Federal Government and the security agencies to make sure that the people of Taraba and Benue live in peace’’ he said The Methodist cleric added that the theme of the 2018 synod “Strive for Peace and Holiness’’ was carefully chosen to emphasise the need for holiness among Nigerians and peace in the country The peacock tarantula (Poecilotheria metallica), only 10 km (6. according to the National Weather Service.000 on December 20, these ideas will make your Labor Day planning a bit less laborious: Contact us at editors@time. and upset voters wanted the county’s top prosecutor to know that they had been prevented from casting their ballots. It was giving help." he explained. PTI "If you dig too much (into our affairs).

Masses Mourn Paris Terror Victims in France and Israel Police officers carry the flag-draped coffins of three police officers killed in the recent terror attacks during a ceremony to posthumously decorate them with the Légion d’Honneur at the Invalides in Paris, who still lives in the area and owns the Zumbro Falls Golf Club." Despite 31 goals in 69 internationals.The department audited 19 oil and gas operators for the years 2012 through 2014. free services will be offered on the Ikotun – Ikeja – Maryland, If he refuses. The boy was then reunited with his mother, similarly for next summer we want to submit a report on Sino-Indian relations. a certified accounting firm in Fargo, He said there was still high-level corruption in the country.

The data could influence the roles available in the armed services for women.

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